Lives in a oxygen based environment
Chemicals released by an organism that limit other organisms.
These chemicals are usually part of the plant community
strategies and are muted for native plants by other associated
chemicals and mycorrhizal activity. A number of the original claims were found to be rabbit dens, not chemicals.
Lives without oxygen; for example if I say, “ your soil
is in an anaerobic condition, I mean that there is no oxygen in
the soil, and most plants can't grow under these conditions
because most roots need oxygen just like we do. Many riparian plants
have adapted roots to pump air into the muck and can live under anaerobic conditions.
These are plants that grow with other particular plants and
are also called associates. These associated plants can be
understory plants or plants that grow beside other plants, not
under them. For example, here in the central California coast
ranges, Johnny Jump-Up (Viola pedunculata) is an associate of
Valley Oak (Quercus lobata). This violet is also mostly an
understory plant that grows under Valley Oak (Quercus lobata).
An artificial basin created by mounding up earth around a
plant, usually to hold water for irrigation.
An artificial levee or mound of earth, used in landscape
design, one purpose being to add dimension to a flat site.
This is a name commonly used by the people of an area for a
particular plant. It is notoriously unreliable because everyone
has a different name in a different language, etc. For example, I
have heard Pinus sabiniana referred to as Bull Pine, Digger Pine,
and Gray Pine. The common name index is sorted by Linux that is
case sensitive and often the sorting is kinda backwards. Use the
search at the bottom of the front page to find your item.
All plants live with other plants in certain areas with
specific climates and certain soils and these groupings are
termed plant communities. Take a look at the
A plant that avoids stress by shutting down, going partially
or totally deciduous (looks dead in extreme cases) at the first
sign of stress. A fruit tree does this in winter, and many
circumventors in mild winter areas of California go partially
deciduous in summer.
A Cultivar is a selection of an individual within the species. If you
dragged all the white males out of an office building, separated out
all the Bob's, and then picked the tallest Bob and used tissue culture
to make a whole bunch of tall Bob's, you'd have to call them something
to separate them from the other Bob's, not to mention the other white
males, so they'd be Tall Bob's. They're still Bob's, and they're all
Ok, that wasn't good. The way that it
works with native plants is someone from somewhere else drives along a
road much traveled and sees a locally common plant. Freaks out, stops
the car, takes a few cuttings, thinks his/her plant is special and
gives it a name like 'Dick's Pick'/ Dick-Anne's Pick. It still is a
wild plant, and it isn't a hybrid as it was from a wild stand of
plants. To say it is a cultivar rather than just a species you have to
clone it (a clone for plants is a plant grown from a cutting). BUT, the
advantage for gardeners is all of the 'Dick's Picks/ Dick-Anne's Pick'
plants are the same. They should be all three foot across and three
feet tall, not varying from two feet to ten feet like the species does.
They are genetically identical.
A watering system that delivers water slowly, a drip at a
time, or a slow stream, that flows vertically.
The plant has adapted to dry climates, or long dry seasons.
This varies with each plant but in most cases it means it can go
without water for an extended period of time.
The doohicky that drips out the water in a drip system. They can have a rating of 1/2 to 4 gallons per hour. Some are pressure compensating.
Completely around the tree (or shrub or perennial), as far as
the branches and leaves extend, at that distance from the trunk,
is the drip line. Within this circle the tree exerts an influence
upon plants that may emerge. As you go past the drip line, the
influence of the tree upon other plants decreases.
Fog drip(see below) under the tree raises the rainfall to multiple times
more than areas outside the drip line. So plants that get along with
the tree are favored under the tree.
A form of mycorrhiza commonly associated with manzanitas and
some conifers. This form of mycorrhiza turns the roots a different color and shape and forms mats.
The old meaning is a plant that lives within a plant.
The new broader meaning is an organism that lives within a
plant.It's common form native plants to have these living in all their tissues . many provide defenses from herbivores.
Fog that condenses on the foliage of trees and shrubs, then
runs down onto and into the ground. This fog drip adds a
significant amount of water to the ground in areas that receive
daily fog in the summer, such as coastal California.In the San Joaquin Vally, fog drip and be the main form of rainfall. No bushes, no rain.
At least 6 hours of direct sunlight
A group of closely related species.
This is the range in height that a plant will attain, usually
in meters. In dry, conditions, plants will be shorter.
A state where there is a deficiency of oxygen; the plant will
then suffer from oxygen deprivation.
|A species, that, by virtue of
its size or biomass, is key to the functioning of that community,
so many other species depend upon it, and if it is lost, the
community effectively collapses. Controversial, many claim that plants
cannot be a keystone.
A type of irrigation, using tiny perforated pieces of plastic,
that produces a small spray of water in a circle, semicircle,
A material placed on the surface of the soil. Some plants like
conifers like pine or redwood mulch, some plants like chaparral
plants like redwood/pine mixed with boulders, desert plants like
the mulch table under soils)
The body, composed of many threads of tissue (each thread
called a hypha), of a fungus.
A fungus that forms a symbiotic relationship with a plant, by
connecting to,and living outside or inside the plant's roots. The
fungus provides nutrients and water to the plant and the plant
provides carbohydrates to the fungus. The fungus will also
connect plants to each other, by way of its hyphae.
One spelling, meaning the plural of mycorrhiza.
Pertaining to mycorrhiza
Filtered sunlight or less than 6 hours of direct sunlight, but more than enough light to take a photo with a cell phone.
This refers to the range of acidity or alkalinity in the soil
that a plant will tolerate. Generally, high pH soils will be
higher in lime and/or salts and lower in rainfall, and lower pH
soils are faster draining and higher in rainfall and/or iron.
The guy in the covered wagon; or alternately, on a site
scraped bare of most vegetation, or a cleared area in a forest,
etc., the first plants that germinate and grow there are the
A herbicide applied before you see any emerging plants above
the ground, that inhibits the development of young roots, usually
in the top ¼ inch of soil.
This entry means the range of rainfall in which a particular
plant will grow without irrigation, measured in centimeters
(around 3/8 inch). We've also included in this the possible
irrigation tolerance to compensate for lost fog drip. A plant
that grows in Los Osos or Fort Bragg may have numbers much higher
than the 'real' rainfall because fog amounts to half or more of
it's moisture intake.
Pathogens attacking the plants roots resulting in dead tissue.
Usually caused by dumb humans putting plant in wrong spot and treating
A plant with weak or no plant community affinities, lives a
very short life, just long enough to produce seeds, and grows
best in disturbed, fertile sites (the weeds of the world are
usually ruderal plants).
The scientific name is the generic and the specific name
together, with the generic name always first and capitalized and
the specific name always second (and uncapitalized). Everywhere
in the world you may go, the scientific name is (supposed to be)
exactly the same. Every plant has two names, the name of the
genus it belongs to (the generic name), and a specific name,
referring to the species to which it belongs; but, and this is
the confusing part, all the names are in Latin! The genus is the
name of the little related group that the plant belongs to. For
example, take maple trees; there are lots of different kinds of
maples, but they all have the generic name Acer, which means
maples in Latin, and so the Silver maple, Japanese maple, Big
Leaf Maple, Vine Maple, and Norway Maple all have the first
(generic) name of Acer, but different specific names. Japanese
Maple is Acer (again, the generic name) palmatum (the specific
name of the species ), Big leaf Maple is Acer (the generic name)
macrophyllum(the specific name meaning big leaf ), Vine Maple is
Acer circinatum, etc. For example, the specific name for Japanese
Maple, as stated above, is palmatum. But that name palmatum, by
itself means nothing, because there are more plants than one with
the name palmatum. Also, the name Acer means nothing by itself.
Acer what? To what maple are you referring? See the problem? Only
when you use the scientific name; the generic and the specific
name together, does the name have meaning .
Plants that commonly come up in the second wave of seedlings
after a fire or massive disturbance. These are plants like sages,
Baccharis, monkey flowers and Ceanothus.
Classically, a group of very closely related individuals that
will only breed with each other.
A type of irrigation, using tiny perforated pieces of plastic,
that produces a small spray of water in a full circle,
This abbreviation means several species, while sp. means one
species. So, if I say Acer spp., I mean several species of
Plants use dormancy to control seed germination and spring growth.
Stratification is the practice of breaking dormancy by chilling.
A plant with certain characteristics that allows it to
tolerate stress and keep growing, and looking normal. These
plants are usually evergreen, long-lived and very drought
tolerant in California.
|The progression of changes that naturally occur in a community. In nature this goes from R to C to S, man screws this up and hangs it at R.
tolerates seaside- This plant will tolerate salt
spray, constant wind (laden with salt), fog, shifting sand, etc.
tolerates alkaline- This plant will tolerate
alkaline soil, with a high pH,
tolerates salt- this plant will tolerate higher
amounts of sodium in the soil
tolerates sand- This plant will grow in very
tolerates clay- this plant will grow in heavy
tolerates serpentine- This plant will grow in
high serpentine soil, which has an imbalance of minerals.
tolerates no drainage- This plant will grow in
bogs, marshes, wetlands, waterlogged soil, etc. There are
different levels of this tolerance.
tolerates seasonal flooding-this plant will grow
under conditions where for several months it is standing in water
and then for several months it is in dried out soil.
tolerates high traffic- This plant will grow even
when it is stepped on every so often by large animals!
tolerates deer- This plant will tolerate being
munched on by deer, or deer do not even munch on it at all.
The plants that grow under taller plants, usually
in the shade of, and within the drip line of, the taller plants.
This is a map which divides the U.S. Into different zones
(each with their own number and color) based on the climate, the
length of the growing season and the lowest winter temperatures.
A variation of a species, where the individuals have different
flower color, or leaf color, or leaf shape, etc. In this manual
we are also referring to it as a cultivar name which is a
cultivated variety, grown by man or a hybrid name, a hybrid being
a cross between two species.
This is the range in width that has been seen for this plant,
usually in meters (3 feet)