Las Pilitas Nursery

California Native Plants are all we grow!

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3232 Las Pilitas Rd
Santa Margarita, CA 93453
Fri. & Sat. from 9am-4pm
8331 Nelson Way
Escondido, CA 92026
Tues. to Sat. from 9am-4pm

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This website is dedicated to Bert Wilson. His genius continues to inspire us. Update: Bert's Memorial Open House will be May 24.

Deer and Fire List

In general, watering makes the plant more fire resistant and less deer resistant.

An explanation of these numbers is given at the bottom of this table.
See also leaf burn times.


Generally California native plants tolerant California deer and fire much better than plants from anywhere else.

Genus/Species

Common Name

Deer Proof by# 10 usually safe to 1 totally destroyed

fire (burn times, in seconds/plant height, in meters, max 10)
nothing is 'safe" but some are best(>60,low and/or burns poorly), better(30, medium height, medium burn), or you should think about it(<1, high and flash)
Deer Comments

Abies bracteata

Santa Lucia Fir

8

2,usually safe if no fire ladder present

usually safe

Acacia Greggii

Catclaw

10

20, creates a lot of debris

very thorny but even gallon stock not bothered

Acer circinatum Vine Maple 7 5 Japanese Maple should be similar

Acer macrophyllum

Big Leaf Maple

8

6, flashy

protect when young

Acer negundo

California Box Elder

9

female 1.5, male more like 5

bothers only seedlings on really bad years

Achillea millefolium californica

Yarrow

9

5, if regularly mowed 60

usually dormant when deer worst

Adenostoma fasciculatum

Chamise

6

15, yes, it's really not that bad

they browse but don't destroy

Adiantum jordanii 9 60(disappears in summer)

Aesculus calif

Buckeye

7

8

poisonous to all (but gophers & deer have eaten)

Agave deserti

Century Plant

8

600

on bad years they roll out new plants and eat bottom

Agave utahensis

Century Plant

10

600

"

Alnus rhombifolia

White Alder

2

1.5, ok if no fire ladder present

water lover, eat the poo out of them on bad years

Amelanchier alnifolia

Western Service Berry

5


Great bird plant

Amorpha californica

False Indigo

10


smelly chaparral plant

Aquilegia eximia

Red Columbine

6

100+ unless you let the debris build up

Pretty perennial

Aquilegia formosa

Western Columbine

6

100+ unless you let the debris build up

Pretty perennial

Aquilegia pubescens

Sierra Columbine

6

100+ unless you let the debris build up

Pretty perennial

Aquilegia shockleyi

Desert Columbine

6

100+ unless you let the debris build up

Pretty perennial

Arbutus Menziesii

Madrone

9

4.5

Structure safe

Arctostaphylos spp.

Manzanitas

9 ( if native in area)


are much more deer resistant in their native areas, gray ones more deer proof

Arctostaphylos crustacea

Brittleleaf Manzanita

5



Arctostaphylos densiflora

'Harmony'

4

60

Only eaten on bad years in some locales

Arctostaphylos densiflora

'Howard McMinn'

4

12

They will eat every leaf,but no stems in bad areas

Arctostaphylos densiflora

'Sentinel'

8

30

not bothered

Arctostaphylos Edmundsii

Sur Manzanita

7

300

very low plant

Arctostaphylos Edmundsii

'Danville'

4

probably 100


Arctostaphylos glauca

Big Berry Manzanita

9

5

They usually don't bother this

Arctostaphylos Hookeri

'Monterey Carpet'

4


They will eat every leaf, but leave stems in bad areas

Arctostaphylos Hookeri

'Wayside'

4

120

They will eat every leaf, but leave stems in bad areas

Arctostaphylos manzanita

'Dr. Hurd'

9

3

They usually don't bother this

Arctostaphylos morroensis

Morro Bay manzanita

7

3


Arctostaphylos pajaroensis

Pajaro Manzanita

4

7


Arctostaphylos parryana

Parry Manzanita

6

20


Arctostaphylos pilosula

La Panza Manzanita

6

1


Arctostaphylos pumila

Dune Manzanita

4



Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Bear Berry

Point Reyes

5

600


Arctostaphylos

'Emerald Carpet'

4



Arctostaphylos

'Greensphere'

4


4

Arctostaphylos

'Sunset'

4

60


Argemone munita

Prickly Poppy

5



Armeria maritima var. calif.

Thrift

4



Arnica Parryi Sonnei

Frog flower

5



Artemisia californica

California Sagebrush

5

60, do not allow debris to build up

about September they (and the wabbits) eat the new plants to the ground

Artemisia pycnocephala

Sandhill Sage

4



Artemisia tridentata

Big Basin Sagebrush

9

45


Asarum caudatum

Wild Ginger

7

100+*


Asclepias eriocarpa

Monarch Milkweed

9

60


Asclepias speciosa

Showy Milkweed

9

55


Aster adscendens

Purple Aster

6

600

flat

Atriplex lentiformis Brewer

Brewers Salt Bush

4

20

rabbits will eat until 3' tall

Atriplex canescens

Fourwing Saltbush

4

30


Atriplex hymenelytra

Desert Holly

5

600


Atriplex polycarpa

Alkali Saltbrush

5

30


Baccharis pilularis

"Pigeon Point "or 'Santa Ana'

6

600

after first year browsing is great! Keeps plant low, but first year they rip them out

Baccharis pilularis consanguinea

Coyote Bush

9

8


Beloperone californica

Chuparosa

7

100+*


Betula occidentalis

River Birch

4



Brodiaea puchella

Blue Dicks

8


off season with deer

Calycanthus ccidentalis

Spice Bush

9

30


Carpenteria californica

Bush Anemone

7

25


Ceanothus species are relatively hard to burn and respond well to light overhead watering once every two weeks. A dust- off once every two weeks makes them really hard to burn. Water very much at all and the deer will eat.

Ceanothus arboreus

Island Mountain Lilac

2

3

they eat as high as they can reach

Ceanothus cuneatus

Buckbrush

9

15


Ceanothus foliosus

Scented-leaf

8



Ceanothus gloriosus

Hearts Desire

7

20


Ceanothus griseus

Big Sur Ceanothus

1



Ceanothus griseus

'Louis Edmunds'

1



Ceanothus griseus var. horizon

Yankee Point

1

60


Ceanothus hearstiorum

Carpet Mountain Lilac

7

150


Ceanothus impressus

Santa Barbara Ceanothus

7

12

will eat new grow in bad years, bucks can do a number on it with antlers

Ceanothus integerrimus

Deer Brush

4



Ceanothus Lemmonii

Lemmon's Ceanothus

6



Ceanothus leucodermis

Whitebark Ceanothus

7



Ceanothus

'L.T. Blue'

8

20


Ceanothus maritimus

Maritime Ceanothus

8

300

nearly flat

Ceanothus megacarpus

Bigpod Ceanothus

8

40


Ceanothus papillosus

Wartleaf Ceanothus

8



Ceanothus prostratus

Squaw Carpet

8

600


Ceanothus purpureus

'Mills Glory'

10

30

one of the most deer proof plants we have seen

Ceanothus sorediatus

Jim Bush

7

15


Ceanothus thyrsiflorus

Blue Blossom

5

20


Ceanothus tomentosus olivaceus

Romona Lilac

8



Ceanothus verrucosus

Wartystem Ceanothus

8

38


Ceanothus

'Blue Jeans'

10

30


Ceanothus

'Concha'

7

30

will eat new growth in bad years

Ceanothus

'Dark Star'

8



Ceanothus gloriosus exaltatus

'Emily Brown'

9



Ceanothus gloriosus porrectus
9 600

Ceanothus

'Frosty Blue'

7

10


Ceanothus

'Joyce Coulter'

7

60


Ceanothus

'Julia Phelps'

8

30


Ceanothus

'Mountain Haze'

7

30


Ceanothus

'Ray Hartman'

2

20


Ceanothus cyaneus

'Sierra Blue'

2

5


Ceanothus rigidus

'Snowball'

10

60


Celtis reticulata

Hackberry

8



Cephalanthus occidentalis californica

Buttonwillow

7

15


Cercidium floridium

Palo Verde

5

15


Cercidium microphyllum

Little Leaf Horse Bean

5

15


Cercis occidentalis

Western Redbud

7

15


Cercocarpus alnifolius

Alder Leaf Mountain Mahogany

1

15


Cercocarpus betuloides

Mountain Mahogany

3

15


Cercocarpus ledifolius

Desert Mountain Mahogany

6



Chilopsis linearis

Desert Willow

7

10


Chlorogalum pomeridianum

Soap Plant

7

5

flower stalks are tasty for deer

Clematis ligusticifolia

Virgin's Bower

7

10


Clematis lasiantha

Virgin's Bower

7

10


Comarostaphylis diversifolia

Summer Holly

6

1.5


Cornus glabrata

Brown Stem Dogwood

7

5


Cornus Nuttallii

Mountain Dogwood

6



Cornus sessilis

Forest Dogwood

6



Cornus stolonifera

Redtwig Dogwood

6

2


Cowania mexicana stansburiana

Cliff Rose

5



Crossosoma californicum

Crabapple bush

5



Cupressus Bakeri

Modoc Cypress

10



Cupressus Forbesii

Tecate Cypress

10

8


Cupressus Goveniana ssp. goveniana

Gowen Cypress

10



Cupressus macnabiana

McNab Cypress

10



Cupressus nevadensis Piute Cypress 10 4

Cupressus Sargentii

Sargent Cypress

10



Delphinium cardinale

Scarlet Larkspur

9



Delphinium Parishii

Sky-Blue Larkspur

9



Dendromecon rigida

Bush Poppy

5

20


Dicentra chrysantha

Golden Ear Drops

8



Diplacus aurantiacus

Sticky Monkey Flower

9

60


Diplacus fasciculatus

Azalea-flowered monkey

8

1

not favorites but will eat

Diplacus longiflorus

Southern Monkey Flower

8

90


Diplacus calycinus

Rock Monkey Flower

8



Diplacus puniceus

Mission Monkey Flower

8

6

Hygine and a little water dramtically helps the numbers on monkeys.

Dodecatheon Clevelandii

Shooting Star

4



Dodecatheon Clevelandii var. insulare


4



Draba oligosperma

Yellow Flowered Moss

9



Dudleya cymosa

Liveforever

7(ducks love)



Dudleya edulis

Narrow Leaf Liveforever

7(ducks love)



Dudleya lanceolata

Liveforever

6

600


Dudleya pulverulenta

Chalk Dudleya

8

600


Dyssodia thurberi

Dainty Yellow Composite

8



Encelia farinosa

Incienso

5

60


Erigeron glaucus

Seaside Daisy

7

300


Eriodictyon californicum

Yerba Santa

8

20


Eriodictyon tomentosum

Wooly Yerba Santa

8

20


Eriogonum arborescens

Santa Cruz Island Buckwheat

3

60


Eriogonum caespitosum

Silver Buckwheat

3



Eriogonum cinereum

Ash-Leaf Buckwheat

3



Eriogonum compositum

Dry Mountain Buckwheat

4



Eriogonum crocatum

Saffron Buckwheat

4



Eriogonum fasciculatum

California Buckwheat

6

60


Eriogonum fasciculatum polifolium

Gray Calif. Buck

6

60


Eriogonum giganteum

Saint Catherine's Lace

6

60

The fire numbers suprised us also.

Eriogonum grande rubescens

Red Buckwheat

5

180


Eriogonum umbellatum

Sulfur Flower

5

100


Eriogonum Wrightii var. subscaposum

High Mountain

5

300


Eriophyllum confertiflorum

Golden Yarrow

6

4


Eriophyllum lanatum var. arachnoideum

Spider Yarrow

6



Erysimum concinnum

Scented Wallflower

5



Erysimum menziesii

Menzes's Wallflower

5



Fallugia paradoxa

Apache Plume

5

30


Ferocactus acanthodes

Barrel Cactus

7

9

on bad years they will eat from bottom up, thorns burn like small twigs

Forestiera neomexicana

Desrt Olive

5



Fragaria californica

Wood Strawberry

9

600


Fragaria chiloensis

Beach Strawberry

9

600


Fraxinus dipetala Flowering Ash 7 2

Fremontodendron californicum

California Flannel Bush

4

15


Fremontodendron Hybrid (PACIFIC SUNSET)


4

1


Fremontodendron mexicanum

Mexican Flannel

7



Galvezia speciosa

Island Snapdragon

1



Garrya elliptica

'James Roof' SilkTassel

7

4


Haplopappus linearifolius

Narrowleaf Golden Bush

7



Helenium hoopsii

Owlclaws

7

500


Heteromeles arbutifolia

Toyon

7

12


Heuchera micrantha

Alum Root

8



Heuchera pilosissima

Hairy Alum Root

8



Heuchera rubescens var. glandulosa

Dwarf Alum

8



Holodiscus discolor

Cream Bush

6



Hyptis Emoryi

Desert-Lavender

7



Iris Douglasiana

Pacific Coast Iris 1

10



Pacific Iris

8



Iris longipetala


9



Iris missouriensis

Western Blue Flag

10



Iris Munzii

Tulare Lavender Iris

10



Isomeris arborea

Bladderpod

9



Iva Hayesiana

Hayes Iva

9

60


Juglans hindsii

California Black Walnut

6

6


Juniperus californica

Calif. Juniper

9

10


Keckiella antirrhinoides

Bush Snapdragon

7

60


Keckiella breviflora

Bush Beard-tongue

7

60


Keckiella cordifolia

Climbing Penstemon

7



Keckiella ternatus

Whorl-leaf Penstemon

7



Larrea tridentata

Creosote Bush

9

30


Lavatera assurgentiflora

Malva Rosa

6



Lepechinia calycina

Pitcher Sage

8



Lepechinia fragrans

Island Pitcher Sage

7

30


Lepidium Fremontii

Desert Alyssum

4?



Lewisia Cotyledon

Siskiyou Lewsia

3?



Libocedrus decurrens

Incense Cedar

10

3

bucks will clean antlers on

Lilium Humboltii var. Bloomerianum

Tiger Lily

4


usually dormant summer when deer are out

Lilium pardalinum

Leopard Lily

3


usually dormant summer when deer are out

Lilium Wigginsii


3


usually dormant summer when deer are out

Lithocarpus densiflora

Tan Bark Oak

9

1.5


Lithophragma heterophylla

Woodland Star

6



Lonicera subspicata var. Johnstonii


9



Lonicera hispidula

Calif.Honeysuckle

9

22


Lonicera interrupta

Chaparral Honeysuckle

7

5


Lonicera involucrata

Twinberry

7



Lotus scoparius

Deer Weed

5

60


Lupinus albifrons

Silver Lupine

7

30


Lupinus arboreus

Tree Lupine

7



Lupinus Chamissonis

Silver Beach Lupine

7



Lupinus excubitus
7 60

Machaeranthera tortifolia

Mojave Aster

5?



Mahonia aquifolium

Oregon Grape

6

10


Mahonia nevinii

Nevin's mahonia

6

20


Mahonia repens

Creeping mahonia

6

30


Malacothamnus fasciculatus

Chaparral Bush Mallow

8

30


Malacothamnus niveus

Las Pilitas Bush Mallow

8



Malacothamnus orbiculatus


8

10


Mimulus cardinalis

Scarlet Monkey Flower

5

120


Mimulus tilingii

Creeping Monkey Flower

5

600+


Monardella antonina


8

120


Monardella macrantha

Large Flowered Mon.

8

600


Monardella Palmeri

Purple leaved

8

600


Monardella subglabra

Mint Bush

8



Monardella villosa

Coyote Mint

8

80


Myrica californica

California Wax Myrtle

8

10


Oenothera hookeri

Hooker's Evening Primrose

5

60


Paeonia californica

California Peony

9



Pellaea andromedaefolia

Coffee Fern

9



Pellaea mucronata

Bird Foot Fern

9



Penstemon azureus

Azure Penstemon

7



Penstemon Bridgesii

Red Mountain Fountains

7



Penstemon centranthifolius

Scarlet Bugler

7



Penstemon clevelandii

Cleveland's Penstemon

7



Penstemon Davidsonii

Blue Color Mat

0



Penstemon grinnellii

Bee penstemon

8



Penstemon heterophyllus

Blue Bedder

9

600

Deer eat until established

Penstemon laetus


9



Penstemon labrosus

Scalet Penstemon

7



Penstemon Newberryi sonomensis

Mountain Pride

7

600


Penstemon palmerii

Balloon Flower

9



Penstemon Rattanii

Eel River Penstemon

6



Penstemon Rydbergii

Whorl Penstemon

9



Penstemon spectabilis

Showy Penstemon

7

25


Phacelia Bolanderi

Blue-flowered grape leaf

8



Philadelphus lewisii

Wild Mock Orange

7

20


Physocarpus capitatus

Ninebark

6?

2


Picea engelmannii

Engelman Spruce

8



Pickeringia montana

Chaparrel Pea

8

30


Pinus aristata

Bristlecone Pine

5



Pinus attenuata

Knob-cone pine

5

1


Pinus Coulteri

Coulter Pine

5



Pinus flexilis

Limber Pine

4

2


Pinus jeffreyi

Jeffrey Pine

5

40


Pinus lambertiana

Sugar Pine

4



Pinus monophylla

Pinyon Pine

5

4


Pinus muricata

Bishop Pine

4

4


Pinus Murrayana

Lodgepole Pine

4



Pinus ponderosa

Ponderosa Pine

4

6

Seems to shed leaves better than other oaks

Pinus radiata

Monterey Pine

3

1.5


Pinus radiata macrocarpa

Cambria Pine

3



Pinus remorata

Santa Cruz Island Pine

4



Pinus Sabiniana

Gray Pine

4

4


Pinus torreyana

Torrey Pine

4



Pinus washoensis

Washoe Pine

4



Pityrogramma triangularis

Goldback Fern

10



Platanus racemosa

Sycamore

4

6

not safe until 5' above deer height

Polystichum munitum

Western Sword Fern

10



Populus fremontii

'Zapata' cottonwood

4

6

not safe until 5' above deer height, then ok

Populus trichocarpa

Black Cottonwood

4

6

not safe until 5' above deer height, then ok

Potentilla gracilis

Cinquefoil

5?



Potentilla glandulosa

Cream Colored Cinquefoil

5?



Potentilla pectinisecta


5?



Prosopis glandulosa

Mesquite

7

4


Prosopis pubescens

Screwbean Mesquite

7

6


Prunus andersonii

Desert Peach

7



Prunus fasciculata punctuated

Sand Almond

7



Prunus ilicifolia

Hollyleaf Cherry

6

2


Prunus Lyonii

Catalina Cherry

5

8


Prunus virginiana var. demissa

Choke Cherry

4

3


Prunus melanocarpa
7 13

Pseudotsuga Menziesii

Douglas Fir

8

4


Purshia glandulosa

Waxy Bitterbrush

5

10


Purshia tridentata

Antelope Bush

5

10


Quercus agrifolia

Live Oak

7

1


Quercus Alvordiana


7



Quercus berberidifolia

Scrub Oak

7

3


Quercus chrysolepis

Canyon Live Oak

8

.5


Quercus Douglasii

Blue Oak

7

6


Quercus durata

Leather Oak

8



Quercus Engelmannii

Mesa Oak

7

.7


Quercus Kelloggii

Calif. Black Oak

7

1


Quercus lobata

Valley Oak

5

1.5

Deer ok after 6' tall

Quercus Wislizenii

Interior Live Oak

7

.5


Quercus Wislizenii var. frutescens

Dwarf Live Oak

7



Rhamnus californica

Coffee Berry

8

15


Rhamnus crocea

Redberry

9

20


Rhamnus crocea ilicifolia

Hollyleaf Redberry

9

15


Rhus integrifolia

Lemonadeberry

8

30


Rhus laurina Laurel Sumac 5 20 Hygine is very important on this plant

Rhus ovata

Sugar Bush

7

20


Rhus trilobata

Squaw Bush

10

20


Ribes aureum gracillimum

Golden Currant

9

25


Ribes californicum

Hillside Currant

8

8


Ribes divaricatum

Nipomo Gooseberry

7



Ribes indecorum

White Flowered Currant

9

30


Ribes malvaceum

Chaparral Currant

9

30


Ribes Menziesii

Canyon Gooseberry

9

30


Ribes quercetorum

Yellow Gooseberry

9

60


Ribes sanguineum glutinosum

Pink-Flowered Currant

9

30


Ribes speciosum

Fuchsia Flowered Currant

9

30


Ribes viburnifolium

Evergreen Currant

9

60


Romneya coulteri

Matilija Poppy

6

10

Without trim down each winter fire .1

Rosa californica

Calif. Wild Rose

7

40


Rosa Woodsii var. glabrata(mohavensis)

Mojave Rose

7

22


Rosa Woodsii var. ultramontana

Fragrant Rose

7



Salix lasiolepis var. braceliniae

Willow

6

3


Salvia apiana

White Sage

7

15


Salvia Brandegei

Island Black Sage

9

60


Salvia clevelandii

Cleveland Sage

9

15


Salvia Dorrii

Purple Desert Sage

9

60


Salvia clev.XS.leu.

'Pozo Blue'

9

15-60 hygine and water


Salvia leucophylla

Purple Sage

9

12


Salvia mellifera

Black Sage

9

20


Salvia mellifera repens

Creeping Black Sage

5

60 with hygine and a little water


Salvia sonomensis

Creeping Sage

5



Salvia spathacea

Hummingbird Sage

9

45


Sambucus mexicana

Elderberry

9

15

protect when young

Satureja chandleri

Potmint

9

120


Satureja douglasii

Yerba Buena

9

600


Satureja mimuloides

Red Hummint

9

10


Saxifraga californica

Calif. Saxifrage

9



Scrophularia atrata

Bee Plant

6?

60


Sedum spathulifolium

Creeping Stonecrop

7

600+


Sequoia sempervirens

Coast Redwood

10


Bucks clean antlers

Sequoiadendron giganteum

Giant-Sequoia

10


Bucks clean antlers

Sheperdia argentea

Silver Buffalo Berry

6



Sidalcea oregana

Oregon Checkers

8



Simmondsia chinensis

Jojoba

5



Sisyrinchium bellum

Blue-eyed Grass

8

600


Sisyrinchium californicum

Yellow-eyed Grass

8

600


Solanum umbelliferum

Blue Witch

9



Solanum Wallacii


5



Sphaeralcea ambigua

Apricot/Desert Mallow

5

30


Sphaeralcea Munroana


5



Spiraea douglasii
9 1

Stachys bullata

Hedge Nettle

9

60


Stanleya pinnata

Princes Plume

5

60


Stipa coronata

Fountain Grass,

9

1


Stipa speciosa

Neddle Grass

9

2


Styrax officinalis var. californica

Snowdrop Bush

6

2


Symphoricarpus albus

Snowberry

8

30


Tsuga Mertensiana

Mountain Hemlock

7


protect when young

Trichostema lanatum

Woolly Blue Curls

7

5

protect when young

Umbellularia californica

California Bay

9

1.5

protect when young

Viguiera deltoidea Parishii

Desert Sunflower

6



Viola pedunculata

Johnny-Jump-up

7



Viola quercetorum

Oak Woodland Voilet

7



Washingtonia filifera

Fan Palm

8


young plants bothered

Xylococcus bicolor

Mission Manzanita

5

7


Yucca brevifolia

Joshua Tree

8

20

Deer will roll out of ground in bad years

Yucca schidigera

Spanish Dagger

8

60

Deer will roll out of ground in bad years

Yucca Whipplei

Our Lord's Candle

8


Deer will roll out of ground in bad years

Zauschneria californica mexicana

California fuchsia

7

60

mow to ground each winter

Zauschneria cana

Narrow Leaf Ca. fuchsia

7

60 mow to ground each winter

*Educated guess.

The safest deer plants are native to your area, try to plant plants that blend into your area. Use the plant community pages or the plant picker program to determine the right plants

The deer numbers:


1-2: They will eat this plant in one night, many times not even leaving the roots. If you have ever even seen a deer in the area it is best not to plant these plants.


3-4: If you have these plants in your garden you don't have deer, they will leave a leafless, stemless stock that usually will recover poorly. Roses and fruit trees fit into this bracket.


5-6: In light deer populations they will not bother, in moderate populations the plants will be eaten like numbers 3-4, in heavy populations they will remove, stems and all.


7: These plants will tolerate moderate deer populations, heavy populations may be disfigured or damaged. Many native shrubs fit into this category. If under some drought stress (as they should be) deer will prefer your neighbors plants. Some non-natives like rock roses and sun roses are in at this number also. If you have rock roses and they are not being eaten then #7's should be ok.

8-9: These plants are safe in 99% of California and they generally recover in the worst of areas.( Look at note in 10 about new plantings.) Many of the 8-10's are safe for years and a drought will bring the deer population to a higher threshold. Then your 8-9's will be eaten but your neighbors 3-5's will disappear.


10: Close to perfect, sometimes a stupid deer doesn't know better. We have trouble with these when they are planted because the root system will not hold the plant into the ground when the deer check them out. They pull them out. That is why we recommend a cage for the first year (read on). They still will eat the new growth (2-3") on bad years.

Use plants in the categories to tell what number area you live in.

Roses 3, Ceanothus 'Carmel Creeper' 2 ,Fruit trees 3, Indian Hawthorne 6, Oleander 8,Buckeye 8,Rosemary 10(but not for a fire area),Lavender 8, Garden Sage 8,most herbs 8,Ivy 7,Tomatoes 2,corn 8(raccoons eat these),Photina 5, Bottle brush 6,Hibiscus 6

If you see deer in numbers (5-20) during the day you are a 9. If they climb hawthorns, eat the bark off trees and bushes you are in #10 territory. If you are moving into a new area and no one has landscaping, ask WHY? We recommend you make cages of chicken wire or orchard wire 4' tall, make a hoop 2' across and wire staple to an 2"X 2" treated post driven into the ground 18". Both the top and bottom can be open,( if they are real bad cover the top). Leave this on the new plantings for the first year. The hoop is easy to make and can be moved to next year's plants. Most of the damage done on 9 & 10s are when newly planted and not hardened off. You need to stress your plants some during the summer so they can develop the necessary terpenes and alkaloides for protection. Deer love nice soft plants. Keeping in mind the fire threat we recommend watering once/week to once/month (Once/week in Barstow, exposed sites in the San Joaquin valley and Paso Robles. In the coastal areas watch the plants. We have had to cut back the watering to 1/month to achieve the a stress level high enough for deer protection.

Fire:

A wooden house would have a fire number of 5. Your overall landscape should average 10 or greater on flat ground next to house, 100+ if it's a slope.. Beyond 100 feet on flat ground, no biggy. Beyond 300 feet on slope probably ok. So zone your areas with irrigation and fire safety. Crudely figure using a table like the ones below.. (Designers and Architects you should design using sq. feet or meters/mature plant versus total area anyway.) The overlay of the trees count twice, count tree sq. meters and the stuff under them sq. meters. A small tree(Buckeye) with 9 sq. meters and a fire number of 8, with Yerba Buena under it., you are effectively averaging the numbers, while doubling the mass of vegetation.

Here are some examples.

Plant, one native tree with groundcover under it. sq. meters or sq. yards fire # Quotient
Buckeye 9 8 1.13
Yerba Buena 9 600 .015
Total square ground covered 18
1.145

total sq.
total q

total-sq/quotient=15.7

Plant, a non-native tree with non-native under it. sq. meters or sq. yards fire # Quotient
Elm, Chinese(overhangs house) 100 1.5 67
Juniper, Pfitzer 64 15 4
Total square ground covered 100
71

total sq.
total q

total-sq/quotient=1.4

A native slope planting. Plants are not low enough. Need more 600s. sq. meters or sq. yards fire # Quotient
Ceanothus Yankee Point 9 60 .15
Arctostaphylos 'Sunset' 9 60 .15
Arctostaphylos edmundsii 'Carmel Sur' 9 600 .015

27
.315

total sq.
total q

total-sq/quotient=85

A native desert planting. sq. meters or sq. yards fire # Quotient
Desert Willow 25 10 2.5
Desert mallow 9 30 .3
Salvia clevelandii 9 15 .6

43
8.8

total sq.
total q

total-sq/quotient=4.8

A planting under a young Jeffery Pine. sq. meters or sq. yards fire # Quotient
Jeffery Pine 16 1 16
Fallugia paradoxa 1 15 .07
Keckellia ternata 1 15 .07
Ribes aureum 1 25 .04

19
16.18

total sq.
total q

total-sq/quotient=1.17